Act Now Appointed to Deliver Information Rights Consultancy Project

Act Now Training is pleased to announce that it has won a tender to deliver information rights consultancy services to an executive agency of a UK Government Department.


The Rural Payments Agency (RPA) is an executive agency of Defra, and operates as the single accredited CAP paying agency in England on behalf of Defra and the Devolved Administrations. It delivers £2.3 billion of CAP payments each year to the businesses and organisations which supply our food, maintain our rural economy, cultural heritage and environmental landscapes. In total, it is responsible for over 40 EU CAP schemes, some of which apply across GB and the UK.

RPA is subject to the full range of information access legislation including the Data Protection Act, Freedom of Information Act and the Environmental Information Regulations. Act Now has been tasked with reviewing the RPA’s information rights handling policies and procedures in the light of best practice and legislative developments. By the end of March we will be delivering a report setting out our recommendations.

Paul Simpkins and Tim Turner, well known experts and trainers in this field, will lead this project. Commenting on the award of the contract, Ibrahim Hasan (director of Act Now Training) said:

“I am very pleased that we have won yet another consultancy project for a major government agency. Our services will contribute to the good work already being done in the RPA to ensure that information governance processes and procedures follow industry best practice. ”

This is one of many recent consultancy projects Act Now has undertaken and enhances our reputation as one of the UK’s leading providers of in house training and consultancy in information law and information management. We pride ourselves on having the most well known experts who have all worked in the public sector for many years. We particularly specialise in:

  • Conducting information management audits
  • Writing policies, procedures and protocols
  • Conducting information risk assessments
  • Providing best practice advice on handling requests for information
  • Writing reports for senior managers and decision makers

We are also starting to develop an international reputation. In January 2014 we won a contract to deliver data protection consultancy services to the Government of Brunei.

Please take a moment to browse our in house training and consultancy pages. Feel free to get in touch to discuss your requirements in this area.

Definition of Personal Data: Durant Revisited

DPA22December 2013 marked the 10-year anniversary of one of Data Protection’s most notorious developments, but it came and went without any great fanfare.

It’s not really surprising that the Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO)  didn’t issue a press release celebrating the Durant judgment’s birthday, as they have been quietly attempting to erase it from history. The result of a long-running dispute between a former Barclays Bank customer and the now defunct Financial Services Authority, Durant v Financial Services Authority [2003] EWCA Civ 1746 was a significant case. The Court of Appeal judges took a sharp look at the definition of personal data, what kinds of manual files are covered by subject access, and the purposes for which subject access can be used – with controversial results. I happened to speak to a former colleague at the ICO a day after Durant was published, and he described the atmosphere as ‘panic’.

Some of Durant is helpful – the judgement proposes that personal data:

should have the putative data subject as its focus rather than some other person with whom he may have been involved or some transaction or event in which he may have figured or have had an interest”.

Those who have worked on Data Protection for a long time will have encountered the view that the mere mention of a person’s name in an email meant that they were entitled to receive it. Durant torpedoed that notion. Other elements remain contentious – the ICO has never agreed with the assertion in paragraph 27 that subject access should not be used “to obtain discovery of documents that may assist him in litigation or complaints against third parties”, The new ICO Subject Access Code rejects this notion altogether, despite the fact that the lower courts have followed the principle every since. However, Durant’s most irksome element – ‘biographical significance’ – has been put in its place by the same court that invented it.

Mr Durant sought data about the FSA’s investigation into his complaints about Barclays, and his lawyers used an expansive interpretation of ‘personal data’ to stake his claim. The FSA’s focus was on Barclays and its practices, which meant that much of the correspondence Durant wanted was about the bank. He also wanted the names of the FSA staff that had dealt with his complaint. Unfortunately, Auld LJ linked the sensible idea of focus to a notion of ‘biographical significance’ test, stating that personal data must be “information that affects [a person’s] privacy, whether in his personal or family life, business or professional capacity”. This was a complicating and potentially unhelpful development. Focus makes sense – an email in which your name is mentioned in passing may well not be about you. But biographical significance is an unnecessary and restrictive innovation.

For example, when looking at a CCTV image with a person in the centre and bystanders in the background, the idea of ‘focus’ allows you to distinguish between the obvious subject of the image and the others. But asking whether the image is biographically significant raises the possibility that a clear picture of a living, identifiable person isn’t actually personal data if it has no private connotations. Is an image of me walking down the street biographically significant? Many have adopted biographical significance as a rule of thumb, a test to apply whenever the question of personal data was raised. In the public sector, it could mean that data about people that wasn’t biographically significant could be disclosed under the Freedom of Information Act 2000 (FOI) because it wasn’t technically ‘personal data’. In the private sector, anything not ‘biographically significant’ could be legally invisible, subject to none of Data Protection’s requirements.

The ICO’s approach to Durant – after the alleged panic subsided – was initially mixed, but for quite a few years it has been consistent. As some sort of riposte to Durant, in 2007 they published technical guidance on the meaning of ‘personal data’ called ‘Determining what is personal data’ – rather than Durant’s narrow, privacy-piercing interpretation. There are few references to Durant anywhere in the ICO’s output, but the technical guidance makes clear that testing ‘biographical significance’ is far from being an automatic or necessary step – it is for borderline cases when context and common sense don’t get you to the answer.

Many data controllers have been tempted to use Durant as a way of shrinking Data Protection down to a comfortable size. Indeed, when considering FOI cases involving personal data, the First Tier Tribunal appears to see the test as an inherent part of the decision, and biographical significance is often a feature of FOISA decisions by the Scottish Information Commissioner. Nevertheless, the ICO’s 2007 interpretation of Durant is logical. LJ Auld himself said that biographical significance was a notion “that may be of assistance” rather than a fundamental key to understanding personal data. Just as important was the balance provided by Buxton LJ, who noted at the end of the judgement that the tests were “a clear guide in borderline cases”. The Durant case was – in effect – about Mr Durant’s case, and didn’t change Data Protection as much as some have suggested.

For confirmation of this, fast-forward to Edem v IC & Financial Services Authority [2014] EWCA Civ 92, a Court of Appeal decision on a different case concerning another unhappy FSA (now the Financial Conduct Authority) complainant published this month. Mr Durant wanted to use Data Protection subject access to obtain his own data, and everything connected with it. Mr Edem wanted to use FOI to find out data about other people – specifically, the names and job titles of the junior staff who had dealt with his complaint. The FSA and Information Commissioner agreed that the data was personal, and that disclosure was unfair. So far, so uncontroversial. A spanner was thrown into the works by the First Tier Tribunal, to which Mr Edem appealed the ICO Decision. Using the biographical significance test, the FTT found that names and job titles were not biographically significant, and the focus of the information sought by Mr Edem was the investigation. The Edem FTT case was like a hall of mirrors, distorting and reflecting Durant to the extent that a type of information Mr Durant couldn’t get from the FSA under DP was now available to Mr Edem under FOI.

An appeal to the Upper Tribunal restored the ICO position, and so Mr Edem went to the Court of Appeal. A few cases – mainly resulting from appeals on FOISA decisions – have gone high enough in the UK court system to challenge Durant, but all skirted Durant itself. The Edem case was different – Durant and biographical significance had to be looked at head-on. The result is good news for common sense and data subjects, but bad for anyone who wants to finagle their way out of an awkward subject access request.

Paragraph 17 of the Edem Court of Appeal case isn’t the death knell for Durant, but it’s a healthy and heavy dose of context:

The First Tier Tribunal were wrong to apply Auld LJ’s “notions” in this case”.

When trying to work out whether a person’s name is personal data, the Court says that biographical significance is irrelevant. The question is whether the data identifies a living individual, and without any complicating or contradictory factors, the data is all you need. My name is Tim Turner, and while that’s not enough to find the bearded Act Now Trainer on the internet (there are country singers and ice hockey players and the man who played the Invisible Man in TV in the 1950s to sort through), it’s easily enough to locate information about me in any of the places I have worked. The Court of Appeal in Edem wholly endorses the ICO view of biographical significance as an occasional add-on, and uses Buxton LJ’s comments from Durant itself to back up that approach.

If it was wrong to overplay the effect of Durant, it’s equally wrong to overplay Edem. For the public sector, Durant was always blunted by the onset of FOI – if you successfully argued that data wasn’t personal data about the subject access applicant, they could always ask for it under FOI. The new judgment doesn’t give new rights to data subjects or expand Data Protection’s reach. A person who wants to use Data Protection to get access to large amounts of information to which they have some loose or stretched connection will come to grief just as Mr Durant did. But the Edem case does restore logic – data that identifies a person, even in a relatively benign or innocuous way – is personal data. The Eight DP Principles apply. Even when at work and doing mundane professional tasks, the DPA is likely to be engaged. An apparent loophole has not been closed – the Edem case simply confirms that it was a lot smaller than it may have appeared. The ICO approach is vindicated, and both the First Tier Tribunal and bloody-minded data controllers may have to think again.

Tim Turner is one of Act Now’s well-known data protection experts. He will be considering this and other latest Data Protection developments in his forthcoming DP Update workshops . Read more of Tim’s expert analysis on his blog. Readers wanting to see how the Durant case has been applied in previous decisions should read Ezsias v The Welsh Ministers (2007).

What is “information” under FOI?

canstockphoto0925773Section 1 of the Freedom of Information 2000 (FOI) contains the general right of access to information held by public authorities. But what exactly is “information”? Section 84 defines information as “information recorded in any form.” This includes information held on paper, computer, video, audiotapes as well as that contained in manuscript notes. FOI does not give access to information that is known to the public authority but is not available in some recorded form (see Ingle v Information Commissioner (EA/2007/0023) ).

Mere marks made on documents are also information according to an Information Tribunal decision from 2009 (O Connell v the Information Commissioner and Crown Prosecution Service (EA/2009/0010)). Here the Tribunal considered access to manuscript notes made by a defence barrister, during a criminal trial, on his client’s typed police interview record. The Information Commissioner’s view was that some of the notes, which consisted of asterisks and underlining of words on a document, were not information for the purposes of FOI.

The Tribunal rejected this submission. In its view, however tenuous and potentially misleading the material sought may be, it still constituted information; even if it was only information to the effect that certain marks had been made on certain sheets of paper held by the public authority. The Tribunal did however rule that the requested information was sensitive personal data, disclosure of which would breach the Data Protection Principles. Consequently it was exempt under section 40(2) being third party personal data.

It is an oft-repeated phrase that FOI provides a right of access to information rather than documents. However, a request for a copy of a document will generally be a valid request for all of the information contained within that document (including visual format, design, layout etc). In considering whether the public authority has complied with the request, the question is whether all of the information recorded in the document has been provided. It will not be sufficient to rephrase the document or provide an outline or summary of its contents unless the applicant has specifically expressed a preference for a digest or summary under section 11(1)(c).

In April 2013 the First Tier Tribunal (Information Rights), ruled that images of MPs’ expense claim receipts was information to which the FOI applied (IPSA v Information Commissioner (EA/2012/0242)). The background to the request was that, following the MPs’ expenses scandal, the then newly-formed Independent Parliamentary Standards Authority (IPSA), decided that it would not routinely publish images of the receipts submitted to IPSA by MPs in support of their expenses claims.  Only text transcribed from the submitted receipts would be published.

A journalist made an FOI request for the actual receipts submitted by a number of MPs. The question arose as to whether images of those receipts held by IPSA contained “information” within the meaning of section 1 of FOI, which was not captured by the transcription process favoured by IPSA. The Tribunal concluded that the definition of information (in this case) included logos, letterheads, handwriting, manuscript comments, and even the layout and style of the requested documents. These were not disclosed to the requestor as a result of providing a transcription, rather than a copy, of the relevant receipts.

The Upper Tribunal’s appeal decision in this case, has now put the matter beyond doubt. In Independent Parliamentary Standards Authority v IC & Leapman [2014] UKUT 33 (AAC) Judge Williams dismissed the appeal by IPSA. At Paragraph 22 of the judgement he said:

“It is to me also trite to note that the wording on a typical receipt or invoice is only part of what a recipient sees when looking at it. Typically there will be verbal and numerical content to be read and understood, but there will also be visual content to be seen, rather than read, but which may also require to be understood for the recipient to have appreciated the whole of the experience, if I may term it that, communicated by the receipt or invoice.”

In the judge’s view information is more than just the words and figures on a piece of paper. Sometimes the nature of the request will mean that the only way to convey all the information on a document is to disclose the original or at least a copy. He gave the example of Land Registry plans, drawings and photographic evidence of a particular building.

In coming to his decision the judge took note of the Scottish Court of Session decision in Glasgow CC v SIC [2009] CSIH 73 under the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 (FOISA). As a general point of principle, the Commissioner and the Tribunal is not bound by Court of Session decisions on FOISA, although they may be considered persuasive where the terms of FOISA mirror the terms of FOI. In the Scottish case the applicant specifically wanted the public authority to provide copies of the documents, although he acknowledged that the same information was available elsewhere. The Court confirmed that FOISA entitles requesters to the information within a document, rather than a copy of the document itself. To the extent that this request was specifically for copies of the documents over and above the information they contained, it was invalid. The Court rejected an argument that the copy documents were “information” distinct from the information contained within them.

The Court stated at paragraph 45 of the judgment:

“Where the request does not describe the information requested… but refers to a document which may contain the relevant information, it may nonetheless be reasonably clear in the circumstances that it is the information recorded in the document that is relevant.”

However paragraph 48 should be noted:

“The difference between the original and a copy… does not consist in any difference between the information recorded in each document: that information, if the copy is true and accurate, will be identical.” (my emphasis)

In the IPSA case, the judge ruled that transcriptions of the requested receipts would not be “true and accurate”, as they would not contain all the same information as on the originals e.g. logos, style, layout etc.

If you want to know more on the Scottish case, read the briefing note published by the Scottish Information Commissioner. The basic principles (and these apply equally to FOI requests) are:

  • The Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 (FOISA) provides a right of access to information and not a right of access to copies of specific documents.
  • Authorities should not automatically refuse requests for copies of documents, as long as it is reasonably clear from the request that it is the information recorded in the document that the applicant wants.
  • Requesting a document (e.g. a report, a minute or a contract) is a commonplace way to describe information. Where it is reasonably clear that a request is for the information contained in a document, the authority should respond to the request as one properly made under FOISA.
  • If a request is for a document, but it is not reasonably clear what information is being requested, the authority should contact the applicant to seek clarification.

These are interesting decisions especially for those public authorities who often insist, when refusing to supply actual documents (such as minutes of meetings) that FOI is about access to information not documents. Sometimes the requestor is interested in the document, which contains the requested information, as it will give a further insight into its background and the thoughts/observations of the producers/subjects of the document.

Finally to quote one of our FOI trainers (Philip Bradshaw):

“Much will also in practice depend on the wording of the request. Contrast “How much did you spend on pencils?” with “Can I have a copy of your pencil invoices”. You can clearly provide in permanent form all the recorded information within scope of the first request without copies, but not perhaps for the second.”

Ibrahim Hasan will be discussing this and other recent FOI decisions in the FOI Update workshops which are delivered in online sessions as well as face to face.

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