The Right to Data Portability under GDPR

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The new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) will come into force on 25th May 2018. Whilst it will replaces the UK’s Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA), it still includes the right of the Data Subject to receive a copy of his/her data, to rectify any inaccuracies and to object to direct marketing. It also introduces new rights, one of which is the right to Data Portability.

Article 20 of GDPR allows for Data Subjects to receive their personal data, which they have provided to a Data Controller, in a structured, commonly used and machine-readable format, and to transmit it to another Data Controller. The aim of this right is to support user choice, user control and consumer empowerment. It will have a big impact on all Data Controllers but particularly data driven organisations such as banks, cloud storage providers, insurance companies and social networking websites. These organisations may find that customers are encouraged to move suppliers, as they will be armed with much more information than they previously had accessed to. This in turn may lead to an increase in competition driving down prices and improving services (so the theory goes; we live in hope!).

When the Right Can Be Exercised

Unlike the subject access right, the Data Portability right does not apply to all personal data held by the Data Controller concerning the Data Subject.  Firstly it has to be automated data. Paper files are not included. Secondly the personal data has to be knowingly and actively provided by the Data Subject. For example account data (e.g. mailing address, user name, age) submitted via online forms, but also when they are generated by and collected from the activities of users, by virtue of the use of a service or device.

By contrast personal data that are derived or inferred from the data provided by the Data Subject, such as a user profile created by analysis of raw smart metering data or a website search history, are excluded from the scope of the right to Data Portability, since they are not provided by the Data Subject, but created by the Data Controller.

Thirdly the personal data has to be processed by the Data Controller with the Data Subject’s consent or pursuant to a contract with him/her. Therefore personal data processed by local authorities as part of their public functions (e.g. council tax and housing benefit data) will be excluded from the right to Data Portability.

It is important to not that this right does not require Data Controllers to keep personal data for longer than specified in their retention schedules or privacy polices. Nor is there a requirement to start storing data just to comply with a Data Portability request if received.

Main elements of Data Portability

Article 20(1) gives a Data Subject two rights:

  1. To receive personal data processed by a Data Controller, and to store it for further personal use on a private device, without transmitting it to another Data Controller.

This is similar to the subject access right. However here the data has to be received “in a structured, commonly used, machine readable format” thus making it easier to analyse and share. It could be used to receive a playlist from a music streaming service, information about online purchases or leisure pass data from a swimming pool.

  1. A right to transmit personal data from one Data Controller to another Data Controller “without hindrance”

This provides the ability for Data Subjects not just to obtain and reuse their data, but also to transmit it to another service provider e.g. social networking sites and cloud storage providers etc. It facilitates the ability of data subjects to move, copy or transmit personal data easily. In addition it provides consumer empowerment by preventing “lock-in”.

The right to Data Portability is expected to foster opportunities for innovation and sharing of personal data between Data Controllers in a safe and secure manner, under the control of the data subject.

Time Limits

Data Controllers must respond to requests for Data Portability without undue delay, and within one month. This can be extended by two months where the request is complex or a number of requests are received. Data Controllers must inform the individual within one month of receipt of the request and explain why the extension is necessary.

Information is to be provided free of charge save for some exceptions. Refusals must be explained as well as the right to complain to the Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO).

Notification Requirements

Data Controllers must inform Data Subjects of the right to Data Portability within their Privacy Notice as required by Article 13 and 14 of GDPR.  (More on Privacy Notices under GDPR here.  See also the ICO’s revised Privacy Notices Code.)

In December 2016, the Article 29 Data Protection Working Party published guidance on Data Portability and a useful FAQ. (Technically these documents are still in draft as comments have been invited until the end of January 2017). It recommends that Data Controllers clearly explain the difference between the types of data that a Data Subject can receive using the portability right or the access right, as well as to provide specific information about the right to Data Portability before any account closure, to enable the Data Subject to retrieve and store his/her personal data.

Subject to technical capabilities, Data controllers should also offer different implementations of the right to Data Portability including a direct download opportunity and allowing Data Subjects to directly transmit the data to another Data Controller.

Impact on the Public Sector 

Local authorities and the wider public sector might be forgiven for thinking that the Data Portability right only applies to private sector organisations which processes a lot of personal data based on consent or a contract e.g. banks, marketing companies, leisure service providers, utilities etc. Major data processing operations in local authorities (e.g. for the purposes of housing benefit, council tax etc.) are based on carrying out public functions or statutory duties and so excluded. However a lot of other data operations will still be covered by this right e.g. data held by personnel, accounts and payroll, leisure services and even social services. An important condition is that the Data Subject must have provided the data.

The Government has confirmed that GDPR is here to stay; well beyond the date when the UK finally leaves the European Union. All Data Controllers need to assess now what impact the right to Data Portability will have on their operations. Policies and Procedures need to be put into place now.

Make 2017 the year you get prepared for the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). See our full day workshops and new GDPR Practitioner Certificate.

Posted in Article 50, Brexit, Data Protection, EU DP Regulation, GDPR, Personal Data, personal data, Uncategorized | 2 Comments

GDPR and the Role of the Data Protection Officer

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The clock has started on the biggest change to the European data protection regime in 20 years. After four years of negotiation, the new EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) will take effect on 25th May 2018.

In the UK, it will replace the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA). With some GDPR breaches carrying fines of up to 4% of global annual turnover or 20 million Euros, now is the time to start planning (if you have not already started!).

You might be forgiven for thinking that the Brexit vote means that there is no need to worry about GDPR (being a piece of EU legislation) or that its effect will be time limited. The Government has now confirmed that GDPR is here to stay; well beyond the date when the UK finally leaves the European Union.

Section 4 of GDPR introduces a statutory position of Data Protection Officer (DPO) who will have a key role in ensuring compliance with GDPR. But who exactly will need a DPO and what is his/her role? The Article 29 Data Protection Working Party has now clarified this in its recently published guidance (the A29 Guidance) and a useful FAQ. Technically these documents are still in draft as comments have been invited until the end of January 2017.

Who needs a DPO?

For the first time Data Controllers as well as Data Processors are required to appoint a Data Protection Officer in three situations (Article 37(1)):

  1. where the processing is carried out by a public authority or body

Public authorities and bodies are not defined within the legislation. The guidance says that this is a matter for national law. It’s fair to say that all bodies subject to the Freedom of Information Act or the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act will be covered by this requirement e.g. councils, government departments, the health sector, schools, emergency services etc.  However it is likely to also cover private companies that carry out public functions or deliver public services in the area of water, transport, energy, housing etc. (See also the decision in Fish Legal v Information Commissioner and others [2015] UKUT 0052 (AAC) which considers the definition of public authorities under the Environmental Information Regulations 2004.)

Purely private companies not involved in public functions or delivering services will only need to appoint DPO if they engage in certain types of data processing operations explained in Article 37:

  1. where the core activities of the controller or the processor consist of processing operations, which require regular and systematic monitoring of data subjects on a large scale

Under this provision companies whose primary activities involve processing personal data on a large scale for the purposes behavioural advertising, online tracking, fraud prevention, detection of money laundering, administering loyalty programs, running CCTV systems, monitoring smart meters etc. will be caught by the DPO requirement.

c) where the core activities of the controller or the processor consist of processing on a large scale of special categories of data or personal data relating to criminal convictions and  offences

The A29 Guidance states that the “and” above should be read to say “or” (a diplomatic way of saying the proof-readers did not do their job!). Special categories of data are broadly the same as Sensitive Personal Data under the Data Protection Act 1998 e.g. ethnic origin, political opinions, religious beliefs, health data etc. This provision will cover, amongst others, polling companies, trade unions and cloud providers storing patient records.

Unless it is obvious, organisations that don’t need to appoint a DPO should keep records of their decision making process. The A29 Guidance suggests that it will be still be good practice to appoint a DPO in some cases; for example, where private organisations carry out public tasks. This could include companies delivering core public services under an outsourcing arrangement e.g. housing maintenance companies, charities delivering social services etc. A group of undertakings may appoint a single DPO provided that he/she is easily accessible and there are no conflicts of interests.

Even organisations not based in the EU may be caught by GDPR and the requirement to appoint a DPO. GDPR will apply to any entity offering goods or services (regardless of payment being taken) and any entity monitoring the behaviours of citizens residing within the EU. Companies are now directly responsible for DP compliance wherever they are based (and not just their EU based offices) as long as they are processing EU citizens’ personal data.

The DPO’s Tasks

According to Article 37(5), the DPO, who can be a staff member or contractor, shall be designated on the basis of professional qualities and, in particular, expert knowledge of data protection law and practices and the ability to fulfill the tasks referred to in Article 39. These are:

  • to inform and advise the controller or the processor and the employees who are
    processing personal data of their obligations pursuant to this Regulation;
  • to monitor compliance with this Regulation, including the assignment of responsibilities, awareness- raising and training of staff involved in the processing operations, and the related audits;
  • to provide advice where requested as regards the data protection impact assessment and monitor its performance pursuant to Article 35;
  • to cooperate with the supervisory authority (the ICO in the UK);
  • to act as the contact point for the supervisory authority on issues related to the processing of personal data

Qualities

The A29 Guidance states:

“Although Article 37 does not specify the professional qualities that should be considered when designating the DPO, it is a relevant element that DPOs should have expertise in national and European data protection laws and practices and an in depth understanding of the GDPR. It is also helpful if the supervisory authorities promote adequate and regular training for DPOs.”

The necessary level of expert knowledge should be determined according to the data processing operations carried out and the protection required for the personal data being processed. For example, where a data processing activity is particularly complex, or where a large amount of sensitive data is involved, the DPO may need a higher level of expertise and support. The necessary skills and expertise include:

  • expertise in national and European data protection laws and practices including an in depth
  • understanding of the GDPR
  • understanding of the processing operations carried out
  • understanding of information technologies and data security
  • knowledge of the business sector and the organisation
  • ability to promote a data protection culture within the organisation

Act Now has recently launched its GDPR Practitioner Certificate aimed at up skilling existing and future DPOs in both the public and private sector. To learn more please visit our website or download the flyer.

The DPO must be allowed to perform tasks in an independent manner and should not receive any instructions regarding the exercise of their tasks. He/She reports to the highest management level in the organisation and cannot be dismissed or penalised for doing their job.

Article 38(2) of GDPR requires the organisation to support its DPO by “providing resources necessary to carry out [their] tasks and access to personal data and processing operations, and to maintain his or her expert knowledge.” The A29 Guidance says that, depending on the nature of the processing operations and the activities and size of the organisation, the following resources should be provided to the DPO:

  • Active support of the DPO’s function by senior management
  • Sufficient time to for DPOs to fulfil their duties
  • Adequate support in terms of financial resources, infrastructure (premises, facilities, equipment) and staff where appropriate
  • Official communication of the designation of the DPO to all staff
  • Access to other services within the organisation so that DPOs can receive essential support, input or information from those other services
  • Continuous training

The DPO will be at the heart of the data protection framework for many organisations, facilitating compliance with the provisions of the GDPR. Now is the time to appoint one to ensure that you get the most suitably qualified. Some say 28,000 will be required in the UK and US. Others have even suggested there will be a skills shortage!

There is certainly a lot to learn and do in less than 18 months when GDPR comes into force. Training and awareness at all levels needs to start now.

Do you think mandatory Data Protection Officers under GDPR will lead to higher salaries for DPOs?
Participate in our Twitter survey:

https://twitter.com/ActNowTraining/status/816980420357132290

Make 2017 the year you get prepared for the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). See our full day workshops and new GDPR Practitioner Certificate.

Posted in Certificated course, Data Protection, EU DP Regulation, GDPR, Uncategorized | 3 Comments

Google rang me!

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The world of information is shrinking. Here’s a heart warming story about a very large organisation and an individual who pays a funny game called petanque.

In our efforts to broaden our appeal and get ourself on the map (the only map that matters – Google maps) – we dropped a pin at our ground in a park in Huddersfield and asked Google for a business listing. They were happy to list us. All we had to do was fit into their strict model. We had to choose what business we were involved in. Petanque club wasn’t a valid answer, we had to select sports complex which sounds very grand for a 30m by 12m pitch composed mostly of gravel but no matter.

Next step was to verify the location and the business. This is where it went wrong again. There were 2 options verify by phone or verify by postcard. Strangely phone verification wasn’t available so we had to opt for postcard. Trouble is, our patch of gravel doesn’t have a regular post delivery. It doesn’t have a building let alone a door or a letterbox. So Google couldn’t contact us by mail. They had driven past us and photographed the hedge alongside our pitch but maybe they were on automatic pilot at the time.

A quick trawl through the support pages provided a solution. Give another address for the postcard – any address will do a long as you receive post at it. Once you have received the postcard, verified that the club is at an address where it isn’t then change the address to what you really want. Strange that a multi zillion dollar international company would allow this simple ruse but that’s what their customer support recommended so I did it. Google said it would have to check my change of address before re-verifying it.

Today Google rang me.

I knew it was them as my phone said +1(650) 253-2000 and helpfully suggested the call was coming from Mountain View, CA, United States. Someone over there asked if I was Huddersfield Petanque Club and did I live at  xxxx Road to which I replied yes and no. They asked me to explain and I told them the story.

They asked 2 tough security questions. What’s Greenhead Park? Is it a neighborhood or an estate? (It’s a park). They repeated the question not understanding my reply so I added it’s a green space in the middle of a town. That did the trick. Next question was what is Marsh Gates.  Is it a Neighborhood or an estate? (it’s a set of gates at the entrance to the park). They understood this.

So they verified the club and we should now be on Google Maps. Next step is changing our picture from a street view image of my front door to a picture of our playing area.

If you want to see our website try https://huddersfieldpetanque.wordpress.com

Happy Christmas and a peaceful new year to all our readers.

Make 2017 the year you get prepared for the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). See our full day workshops and new  GDPR Practitioner Certificate.

 

 

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GDPR: The Rise of Information Risk?

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By Scott Sammons

Risk Management is one of the things that many people claim to know about. Often though, their lack of knowledge is exposed when they end up either focusing on the wrong risks or creating some complicated process that educates no one and leads everyone on a merry dance. And truth be told it can be quite difficult to understand; which may explain why people switch off it or create complex processes to support the basic principles of managing risk.

However, the future is here and managing risks to information is about to go from a reasonably unknown practice into a full blown framework and way to help manage your GDPR compliance. (And selfishly as someone that has done Information Risk Management for a few years now I can finally say, “Yippeeee!”).

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is going to be implemented in May 2018. Throughout the GDPR there are references to the capturing and management of data protection risks. Combine that with the need under GDPR to demonstrate compliance, and therefore demonstrate the management of risks to that compliance, we are likely to see a quick rise in Information Risk as a discipline / practice / skill.

‘Information risk’ up until today has been a varied discipline. If you were to Google the term, or speak to any recruitment agency they would say that Information Risk was the domain of ‘Cyber Security’. Currently, outside of the NHS toolkit, the only other country wide frameworks that make reference to information risk management is ISO27000 and 27001. But not everyone goes for these, or indeed has a need to, so what we are left with, is an information risk management practice that varies greatly in approach and usefulness.

The GDPR doesn’t give you chapter and verse on how to implement it. However, it does in several areas, reference the need to do it and indeed as it starts to become embedded we will start to see further standards on what it should look like.

Firstly, and in the most obvious place, is Article 25 ‘Data Protection by Design and Default’. This article outlines the requirements for embedding Data Protection principles into the very core of new designs and ideas for products and services. Article 25(1) outlines that Data Controllers should implement appropriate technical and organisational measures to mitigate the risks posed against the rights and freedoms of the natural person by the processing proposed. Now, in order to determine what is ‘appropriate’ as a control you need to have first determined the likelihood and impact of that particular threat materialising.

Voila! A risk management process is born.

Similarly Article 35, ‘data protection impact assessment’ (DPIA) talks about a very similar process with regards to risks to Data Protection. In a DPIA, a Data Controller would assess the risks to the rights and freedoms of natural persons by the processing in scope and determine, with the DPO where appropriate, what controls should be put in place that are appropriate to the level of risk. This assessment shall contain at least;

  1. a systematic description of the envisaged processing operations and the purposes of the processing, including, where applicable, the legitimate interest pursued by the controller;
  2. an assessment of the necessity and proportionality of the processing operations in relation to the purposes;
  3. an assessment of the risks to the rights and freedoms of data subjects referred to in paragraph 1; and
  4. the measures envisaged to address the risks, including safeguards, security measures and mechanisms to ensure the protection of personal data and to demonstrate compliance with this Regulation taking into account the rights and legitimate interests of data subjects and other persons concerned.

Or, in other words, everything that you would expect to see in a risk assessment under current risk assessment practices (especially if you already engage in information risk as a discipline).

Article 32 ‘Security of Processing’ goes a little further and states the below;

  1. Taking into account the state of the art, the costs of implementation and the nature, scope, context and purposes of processing as well as the risk of varying likelihood and severity for the rights and freedoms of natural persons, the controller and the processor shall implement appropriate technical and organisational measures to ensure a level of security appropriate to the risk, including inter alia as appropriate:
  1. the pseudonymisation and encryption of personal data;
  2. the ability to ensure the ongoing confidentiality, integrity, availability and resilience of processing systems and services; 
  3. the ability to restore the availability and access to personal data in a timely manner in the event of a physical or technical incident; 
  4. a process for regularly testing, assessing and evaluating the effectiveness of technical and organisational measures for ensuring the security of the processing.
  1. In assessing the appropriate level of security account shall be taken in particular of the risks that are presented by processing, in particular from accidental or unlawful destruction, loss, alteration, unauthorised disclosure of, or access to personal data transmitted, stored or otherwise processed.

Here we see the familiar areas of Information Security Risk Management, with some little tweaks to make it relevant for GDPR. But again, the principle of knowing what your threats and vulnerabilities are so that you can assess them and then ensure your technical and organisational measures are appropriate to the level of risk. You can’t effectively know one without the other.

Another key area that risk and risk assessments come into play relates to Breach Notification in Article 33 (the Authority) and 34 (the data subject). In both articles the requirement to notify is necessary unless the breach is ‘unlikely to result in a risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons’.

Please note however that in article 34 wording swaps this around and says the duty to inform the data subject is there if there is a high risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons.

In other areas that either reference the need to risk manage or instances where as above only become necessary where a risk management process determines it are;

  • Prior Consultation (article 36)
  • Tasks of the Data Protection Officer (article 39)
  • Derogations for specific situations (international data transfers) (article 49)
  • Tasks of the Supervisory Authority (Article 37)
  • Tasks of the Data Protection Board (Article 70)

As we all know the GDPR is long and has the potential to become infinitely complicated depending on what processing you are doing, therefore you cannot possibly hope to comply with 100% of it 100% of the time. Find me someone that can and I’ll show you a magician. Therefore you need to ensure that you have a robust and easy to understand risk management process in place to manage your GDPR risks and determine what areas need more focus and what areas are ‘low risk’.

If you’ve not started your GDPR implementation programme yet, one thing that has worked well for me when determining where on earth to begin with this is to complete a data inventory, which includes why information is being processed, and to do a risk assessment on that inventory. What areas show up as massive gaps in current compliance let alone GDPR and what show up as minor tweaks? Once you have a reasonable level of overview you can then start to prioritise and logically see how things fit into place leading up to 2018. You can also see what areas of risk you can carry forward past May 2018 as currently there is no expectation from any of the supervisory authority that you will have / be 100% compliant by day 1.

Scott Sammons CIPP/E, AMIRMS is an experienced Data Protection & Information Risk practitioner and blogs under the name @privacyminion. He is on the Exam Board for the GDPR Practitioner Certificate.

Read more about the General Data Protection Regulation and attend our full day workshop.

Posted in Data Protection, EU DP Regulation, GDPR, information risk, Information Security | 2 Comments

New GDPR Practitioner Certificate Launched!

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 New GDPR Practitioner Certificate Launched

Act Now Training Limited is pleased to announce the launch of its new GDPR Practitioner Certificate (GDPR.Cert).

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is going to be implemented in May 2018 despite the Brexit vote. Indeed the Government has confirmed that GDPR is going to be part of UK law even after the UK leaves the EU. So say hello to Breach Notification, the Right To Be Forgotten, the joys of Privacy Impact Assessments and, in some cases, the mandatory Data Protection Officer.

The GDPR Practitioner Certificate (GDPR.Cert) is aimed at those undertaking the role of Data Protection Officer under GDPR whether in the public or the private sector. This is going to be a challenging role. In November, the new Information Commissioner (Elizabeth Denham) said in a speech at the NADPO annual conference:

“I think the role of DPO can be one of the toughest jobs around. You have to help your organisations deliver, but you have to do it in a privacy responsible and transparent way. That’s really challenging in lots of varied situations.”

This course will teach delegates essential GDPR skills and knowledge. It builds on the success of the Act Now Data Protection Practitioner Certificate (launched in April 2014), which it replaces, by focussing on GDPR. The course takes place over four days (one day per week) and involves lectures, assessments and exercises. This is followed by a written assessment. Candidates are then required to complete a practical project (in their own time) to achieve the certificate.

The course tutor is Tim Turner who says:

“GDPR is the biggest change to Data Protection in a generation. I have looked at every aspect of this revised course to equip Data Protection officers with the knowledge they need to tackle GDPR in a practical way.”

Tim will share his vast experience gained through years of helping organisations comply with their DP obligations. This, together with a comprehensive set of course materials and guidance notes, will mean that delegates will not only be in a position to pass the course assessment but to learn valuable DPO skills which they will be able to apply in their workplaces for years to come.

This new course builds on Act Now’s reputation for delivering high quality practical training at an affordable price:

This new course widens the choice of qualifications for DP practitioners and advisers. Ibrahim Hasan (Director of Act Now Training) said:

“We are pleased be able to launch this new qualification with less than 18 months to go to GDPR implementation. Because of its emphasis on practical skills, we are confident that it will become the qualification of choice for current and future Data Protection Officers.”

To learn more please visit our website or download the flyer.

Posted in Brexit, Data Protection, EU DP Regulation, GDPR, ISEB, Privacy | Leave a comment

Practitioner Certificate in FOISA: Another Successful Year

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Act Now Training is pleased to report that it has completed another successful year of delivering the Practitioner Certificate in the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002. Now in its fourth year the course is the only certificated FOI course specifically designed for Scottish delegates.

Two courses were delivered in 2016 with 22 very strong candidates from a variety of backgrounds including the local government, education, health, government and regulatory sectors. All the delegates passed the course. Of these 3 achieved a distinction and 14 achieved a merit. The delegate feedback has been extremely positive:

“I really enjoyed the course and thought that Tim Turner really brought the subject to life.  He was an excellent tutor and made this subject both interesting and informative with amusing anecdotes throughout.  I would certainly go on another course being delivered by Tim Turner and I would recommend him to my peers.”  LC, Glasgow Kelvin College

“Tim was an excellent tutor. His knowledge of the subject was vast and impressive. I learned a lot.” JM, Fife Council

“This is the most useful course I have participated in for a long time.” JT, Crofting Commission

Read a previous successful candidate’s observations here.

The course is endorsed by the Centre for FOI based at Dundee University. The Chair of the independent Exam Board , Professor Kevin Dunion (formerly the Scottish Information Commissioner and now the Executive Director of the Centre for FOI).

The most recent course was delivered by Frank Rankin who has many years of experience working in the Scottish public sector. Frank said:

 “The Act Now certificate brings together a fantastic cross section of FOISA practitioners from a range of organisations, large and small, across all parts of the public sector. I love sharing ideas and experience with these colleagues, and learning from their campaign stories as well.”

The Act Now Practitioner Certificate in FOISA is now the qualification of choice for FOISA professionals in Scotland. The next course is in February 2017 runs over five weeks and is already filling up. For those who are time poor we also have a one-week intensive option. More details here: http://www.actnow.org.uk/content/113

Following a consultation last year, 1st September 2016 saw FOISA being extended to cover more organisations. Act Now has a full programme of FOISA workshops in Scotland.

Posted in BCS, FOISA, ISEB, Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Have you stopped speeding your car? Insurance companies and data protection.

 

clip_image002I went on a Speed Awareness Course recently. I was not alone as 1,207,570 people did in 2015 and the numbers for 2016 will certainly be higher. There was a wonderful cross section of the population there and two trainers there as well. It was a good course with plenty of information about reading the road, hazards, speed limits quizzes and video.

My first reaction to the Notice of Intended Prosecution was that I’d start accumulating points and points (in car insurance terms) means price hikes so to be offered a course in lieu of points was a fantastic result. The cost of the course (£90) was irrelevant in fact I’d have paid much more to avoid the points. The cost of the Fixed penalty (£100) was also not an issue even though I didn’t pay it. It was the points on my licence that was at the forefront of my mind.

Not everyone is offered a course however

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This says in plain English that you may be caught at 35mph but will avoid a prosecution but between 36mph & 42mph you will be offered a course. So just over the limit is OK; medium level speeding means a course but over the top speeding means a prosecution or fixed penalty. That’s why you see lines of executive cars chugging down the motorway with cruise control set at 78mph. This chart effectively raises all speed limits by 10% to 20% and could even be said to be an inducement to ignore posted speed limits but work with the generous grey area speeds the police allow.

While researching this article I found that some countries base the size of a fine for speeding on the income of the speeder. Finland fined a highly paid (£4.7m a year) businessman £50,000. See more detail here http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/blogs-news-from-elsewhere-31709454

And also there are stories of people asking other people to “take’ points in return for money. An interesting concept worth investigating…

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-1390586/Would-ask-loved-speeding-points-I-did-I-live-consequences.html

The big question that came up halfway through the course was

“Should I tell my insurers that I’ve been on the course?”

The trainer was clear.

“Your details will be held on a database so other police forces who may catch you speeding will not offer you a course. This will last for 3 years. The Police will not pass this information to anyone else”

Searching the web will find plenty of discussion on this subject. Here’s what the AA (which provides Speed Awareness Courses) says

“Your personal details are protected by the Data Protection Act 1998. If you elect to participate, you agree to your details being checked by us against the ACPO national database to establish if you have completed a similar course within the last 3 years of this offence.

If you complete a “National” course, your details relating to the course will remain on file with the ACPO national database for road safety research purposes for a further 7 years from the date of the offence, after which any personal reference to you will be erased. These details will not be released to any other party apart from other UK Police Forces if they are considering making an offer of a course in the future.”

ACPO has disappeared and NPCC (National Police Chiefs Council) has sprung up but it’s logical to assume that the data is still there but the name of the Data Controller has changed.

Ndors is the national body that oversees the courses. They say

“Once a person has been on the course then no further action will be taken, there is no fine to pay and they will not have any points put onto their licence.”

A generally held point of view is that there is no conviction so no requirement to inform insurance companies. However some insurance companies (largely the Admiral group) have started to ask potential customers if they have been on a Speed Awareness Course as in their view that person although not convicted have shown an inclination to speed and this would affect any insurance premium.

The web has plenty of forums where this issue is discussed and opinions of insurance companies range from infuriated to incensed. A typical comment is

“Insurance companies will use any excuse to weasel out of paying a claim because they are cheating bastards.”

But who is right in this matter? Is there a data protection angle? We think so.

If anyone approached the police database and asked to see if a person was on that database because they had been on a Speed Awareness Course I would expect the answer to be no you’re not getting it – it’s confidential. Even using the Freedom of Information Act would elicit this response and it seems the right response. There are other exemptions that might apply

However the Insurance companies are not going down that route as they know they don’t have a right of access. They are asking people to voluntarily inform them that they have been on such a course so that they can increase their insurance premium. They point to a general catch-all in their small print that customers must inform them of anything that might affect their insurance. Can insurance companies ask this? Can they ask a question that they know the person doesn’t want to answer because it invades their privacy?

  • Do you have cancer?
  • Do you smoke?
  • Do you walk 5,000 steps a day
  • Have you dropped litter and been fined?
  • Have you separated from your partner?

They say that if you withhold such information it may invalidate the policy but they can’t collect it lawfully unless they obtain it from the customer as they have no lawful means of obtaining it. If you have a massive claim and they see a £25,000 payout in prospect they might just use a private investigator to look into the claim and see if they can find some fault with it. He may stray outside the law and find evidence of your course…

But if you voluntarily answer the question that they may not be able to ask you haven’t you consented to giving the answer?

Consent hits the first button in Schedule 2 so the Insurance companies are processing fairly and lawfully. Or are they? If you are asked to consent to a disclosure that will have an adverse effect on your life is that a true consent or an enforced consent?

Consent isn’t defined in the Data Protection Act so it has its ordinary meaning. A quick web search says consent is “permission for something to happen or agreement to do something”. Do you think customers are agreeing that Admiral can hold their Course attendance and increase premiums as a result? Or are they reluctantly disclosing for fear of losing their insurance?

Other parts of Schedule 2 don’t seem to apply except for old faithful paragraph 6 – the legitimate interests pursued by the data controller or by the third party or parties to whom the data are disclosed, except where the processing is unwarranted in any particular case by reason of prejudice to the rights and freedoms or legitimate interests of the data subject. Whoever inserted the tiny word prejudice here many years ago may have done the nation an immense service. Of course it will prejudice the rights and freedoms of someone who hasn’t been convicted of a speeding offence yet is in danger of being penalised for doing so.

And if you’re thinking of diving into schedule 3 think again. It’s not sensitive data. It’s a training course not a conviction.

So on balance it’s probably unlawful for Insurance companies to ask the question as it’s not a freely given consent; they have no access to the police database of course attendees and if they do set a data hound on the case he probably can’t access the information lawfully either.

But there’s also a left field solution. All seasoned FOI professionals know that there’s a way of answering a request without actually answering it. Yes you’re remembering it now aren’t you – it’s the Neither Confirm nor Deny option.

Section 1(1)(a) of the FOI Act allows this where confirming would in itself disclose sensitive or potentially damaging information that falls under an exemption.

So when the Insurance company asks the question you Neither Confirm nor Deny that you have been on a course. They can’t make any further decisions on your premium. They can’t say “well it’s obvious that he’s done a course” as they have no evidence of it.

Good luck with that one.

Finally if you do find yourself being asked the question and any of the solutions here are a bit too drastic you can always swap insurers to one that doesn’t ask the question. But as you do remember that all the individuals who were coerced into unfairly disclosing Speed Awareness courses to Admiral may find that Admiral shares the data anyway. Big Brother (or Big Insurer) is not far away.

 In the vanguard of forced consent is Admiral. Not content with asking up about speed awareness courses you’ve been on they now want to trawl through your facebook posts to make decisions on what type of person you are so they can adjust premiums of party animals. See http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-37847647 Fortunately Facebook has declined to give Admiral access.  But questions have to be asked as to how far Admiral or other insurers will go to into your personal affairs to work out a suitable premium especially for you. A word trending in DP circles as GDPR approaches is Profiling. Maybe it’s time you found out what it will mean for your company in the future.

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Act Now has a full programme of Data Protection workshops including full day GDPR workshopsWe also run the Act Now Data Protection Practitioner Certificate which is ideal for those preparing for the role of Data Protection Officer under GDPR.

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